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vault 1 (vôlt)
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n.
1.
a. An arched structure, usually of masonry or concrete, serving to cover a space.
b. An arched overhead covering, such as the sky, that resembles the architectural structure in form.
2. A room or space, such as a cellar or storeroom, with an arched ceiling, especially when underground.
3. A room or compartment, often built of steel, for the safekeeping of valuables: a bank vault.
4. A burial chamber, especially when underground.
5. Anatomy An arched part of the body, especially the top part of the skull.
tr.v. vault·ed, vault·ing, vaults
1. To construct or supply with an arched ceiling; cover with a vault.
2. To build or make in the shape of a vault; arch.

[Middle English vaute, from Old French, from Vulgar Latin *volvita, volta, from feminine of *volvitus, arched, alteration of Latin volūtus, past participle of volvere, to roll; see wel-2 in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]
(click for a larger image)
vault1
top to bottom: barrel, groin, and rib vaults

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2017 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
vault 2 (vôlt)
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v. vault·ed, vault·ing, vaults
v.tr.
To jump or leap over, especially with the aid of a support such as the hands or a pole.
v.intr.
1. To jump or leap, especially with the use of the hands or a pole.
2. To accomplish something suddenly or vigorously: vaulted into a position of wealth.
n.
1. The act of vaulting; a jump.
2. A piece of gymnastic equipment with an upholstered body used especially for vaulting. Also called vaulting horse.

[Obsolete French volter, from Old French, from Old Italian voltare, from Vulgar Latin *volvitāre, frequentative of Latin volvere, to turn, roll; see wel-2 in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]

vaulter n.
(click for a larger image)
vault 2
Thomas Bouhail of France at the 2009 European Men's Artistic Gymnastics Championships
Milan, Italy

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2017 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 

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