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nap 1 (năp)
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n.
A brief sleep, often during the day.
intr.v. napped, nap·ping, naps
1. To sleep for a brief period, often during the day; doze.
2. To be unaware of imminent danger or trouble; be off guard: The civil unrest caught the police napping.

[Middle English, from nappen, to doze, from Old English hnappian.]

napper n.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
nap 2 (năp)
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n.
A soft or fuzzy surface on fabric or leather.
tr.v. napped, nap·ping, naps
To form or raise a soft or fuzzy surface on (fabric or leather).

[Alteration (perhaps influenced by obsolete French nape, tablecloth) of Middle English noppe, from Middle Dutch.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
nap 3 (năp)
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tr.v. napped, nap·ping, naps
To pour or put a sauce or gravy over (a cooked dish) in a thin, even layer: "a stuffed veal chop napped with an elegant Port sauce" (Jay Jacobs).

[French napper, from nappe, cover; see NAPPE.]
(click for a larger image)
nap3

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
nap 4 (năp)
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n.
1.
a. A trick-taking card game in which the players are each dealt five cards and everyone bids the number of tricks they intend to take, with the highest bidder deciding the trump.
b. The first bid of five tricks in this game, the maximum number in a hand. Also called napoleon.
2. See napoleon1.

[Short for NAPOLEON.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 

Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices

    Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:

    Indo-European Roots

    Semitic Roots

    The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.

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