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chop 1 (chŏp)
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v. chopped, chop·ping, chops
v.tr.
1.
a. To cut by striking with a heavy sharp tool, such as an axe: chop wood.
b. To shape or form by chopping: chop a hole in the ice.
c. To cut into small pieces: chop onions and carrots; chop up meat.
d. To reduce abruptly or by a large amount: chopped off his sentence midway; are going to chop expenses.
2. Sports To hit or swing at (a pitched ball) with a short downward stroke.
v.intr.
1. To make heavy, cutting strokes.
2. Archaic To move roughly or suddenly.
n.
1. The act of chopping.
2.
a. A swift, short, cutting blow or stroke.
b. Sports A short downward stroke.
3. A piece that has been chopped off, especially a cut of meat, usually taken from the rib, shoulder, or loin and containing a bone.
4.
a. A short irregular motion of waves.
b. An area of choppy water, as on an ocean.

[Middle English choppen, probably variant of chappen, to split; see CHAP1.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
chop 2 (chŏp)
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intr.v. chopped, chop·ping, chops
To change direction suddenly, as a ship in the wind.

[Obsolete, to exchange, from Middle English choppen, to barter, bargain, variant of chapen, from Old English cēapian, from cēap, bargain, trade; see CHEAP.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 
chop 3 (chŏp)
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n.
1. The official stamp or seal of a government, company, or individual, especially in China.
2. Quality; class: first chop.

[Hindi chāp, seal.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
 

Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices

    Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:

    Indo-European Roots

    Semitic Roots

    The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.

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