The capital and largest city of Spain, on the central plateau north-northeast of Toledo. Built on the site of a Moorish fortress captured in the 11th century, it became the capital in 1561 during the reign of Philip II and grew in importance and magnificence under the Bourbons in the 18th century. Madrid was a Loyalist stronghold during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.