A country of northeast Africa and the Sinai Peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea. In ancient times it was a flourishing kingdom and one of the earliest known civilizations, known for its development of hieroglyphic writing and its achievements in agriculture, art, and architecture. It reached its height during the XVIII dynasty (1570-1342? BC) and declined after the seventh century BC, falling to various conquerors including the Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, French, and British. Although nominally independent after 1922, it remained a British protectorate until 1936. A military coup in 1952 overthrew King Farouk I's constitutional monarchy, and a republic was established the following year. From 1958 to 1961 it was joined to Syria as the United Arab Republic. Cairo is the capital and the largest city.
(click for a larger image)Egypt
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2019 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.