A·sta·na (ə-stänə) Formerly Aq·mo·la (äk′mō-lä) or and Tse·lin·o·grad (tsə-lĭnə-gräd′)
The capital of Kazakhstan, in the north-central part of the country. Founded as a fortress in 1824, it was a small mining town until the 1950s when it became the center of a vast agricultural project initiated by Nikita Khrushchev. The capital was shifted from Almaty in 1997.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2022 by HarperCollins Publishers. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.