and (ənd, ən; ănd when stressed)
1. Together with or along with; in addition to; as well as. Used to connect words, phrases, or clauses that have the same grammatical function in a construction.
2. Added to; plus: Two and two makes four.
3. Used to indicate result: Give the boy a chance, and he might surprise you.
4. Informal Used after a verb such as come, go, or try to introduce another verb describing the purpose of the action: come and see; try and find it. See Usage Note at try.
5. Archaic If: and it please you.
An addition or stipulation: The offer is final—no ifs, ands, or buts.
and so forth/on
1. And other unspecified things of the same class: bought groceries, went to the bank, picked up the dry cleaning, and so forth.
2. Further in the same manner.
and then some Informal
With considerably more in addition: This project will take all our skill and then some.
[Middle English, from Old English; see en in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: A traditional grammatical rule asserts that sentences beginning with and or but express "incomplete thoughts" and are therefore incorrect. But this stricture has been ignored by writers from Shakespeare to Joyce Carol Oates, and most of the Usage Panel sees wisdom in this attitude. In our 1988 survey, when asked whether they paid attention to the rule in their own writing, 24 percent answered "always or usually," 36 percent answered "sometimes," and 40 percent answered "rarely or never." See Usage Notes at both, but, with.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition copyright ©2020 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Indo-European & Semitic Roots Appendices
Thousands of entries in the dictionary include etymologies that trace their origins back to reconstructed proto-languages. You can obtain more information about these forms in our online appendices:
The Indo-European appendix covers nearly half of the Indo-European roots that have left their mark on English words. A more complete treatment of Indo-European roots and the English words derived from them is available in our Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.